1. The right answer is D.
Vitamin D is an organic substance necessary for the metabolism of the body. A large part of our needs (80%) is synthesized from a derivative of cholesterol under the action of UVB radiation from the sun, it is also for this reason that it is also called "sun vitamin" . The rest must be drawn from the diet.
It intervenes in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus by the intestines, then in the reabsorption by the kidneys. Indispensable for growth during infancy, it ensures the robustness of the human skeleton and prevents osteoporosis. After a certain age, the body does not synthesize vitamin D as easily.
2. The right answer is C
Growth can continue until the age of 25 in a man and 18 in women, and contrary to popular belief, it is not uncommon to grow to over 21 years and it is impossible to predict a growth stop or define the future size of any individual.
3. The right answer is A
Ossification always begins in the median region of the diaphysis, under the perichondrium, by a small ring of bone generated by osteoblasts arising on the inner side of the perichondrium; these cells secrete around them layers of ossein impregnated with calcareous salts; from this moment the perichondrium must be called the periosteum.
This same process of ossification extends under all the internal surface of the periosteum and reaches the neighborhood of the epiphyses.
4. The right answer is D
The lumbar vertebrae are vertebrae of the caudal part of the spine. They are located between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum. They allow large flexion and extension movements, limited lateral flexion movements, and discrete rotations.
The most caudal lumbar vertebra articulates with the sacrum to constitute the lumbosacral hinge, junction between the mobile part and the fixed part of the column.
5. The right answer is B
Collagen is an extracellular protein found in vertebrates that forms insoluble fiber.
In bone, collagen is produced by osteoblasts and forms lamellae that give the bone its resistance to stretching. Collagen cartilage allows the joints to resist tensile forces.
6. The right answer is D
The bones forming the skeleton are articulated (by more or less mobile joints: if the bones of the skull remain welded to each other, the vertebral joints allow slight movements while maintaining their role of support, while the joints of the limbs assure rotations around axes with one (finger) or several (elbow) degrees of liberty).
7. The right answer is A
The appendicular skeleton of the human body is composed of 126 bones. The word appendicum is the adjective derived from the word appendix, which means part adjoined to something larger. From a functional point of view, the appendicular skeleton is intended for locomotion (lower limbs) of the axial skeleton, and for the manipulation of surrounding objects (upper limbs).
8. The right answer is C
The flat bones are composed of a spongy tissue in the center and a compact tissue on the outside. This type of bone structure forms cavities that protect the noble structures. This is the case of the skull, the thorax and the pelvis. In addition, they serve as an intersection with large muscle masses.
9. The right answer is B
The shoulder consists of three bones, the clavicle, the scapula or scapula and the humerus.
The mobility of the shoulder is provided mainly by the deltoid muscle, which provides power, and by the muscles of the cap, which initiate movement and stabilize the head of the humerus.
The rotator cuff is the name given to all the tendons that form a "hat" above the head of the humerus.
Between the head of the humerus and the acromion (outgrowth of the scapula), is a slip exchange called sub-acromial stock exchange.
10. The right answer is B
The axial skeleton consists of 80 articulated bones among 88 bones, all skeletal and mostly odd (and medial), forming the head and trunk. It includes the bones of the skull, spine, ribs and sternum, as well as the laryngeal bone, and represents 57 different articulated bones among 65 different bones.