c. Christianity, chivalry, and the power-struggle between Popes and kings marked the era.
Medieval society was for centuries a basically rural society. In the Middle Ages ninety percent of the population lived in the countryside, center of all activity and daily life for the inhabitants of that time.
In the first medieval centuries, peasants organized themselves around their own lands and other common lands, such as forests, which they shared with their neighbors. In small groups, they imposed their laws and justice, organized the harvests and the resources that they obtained from them.
Little by little, these communities were absorbed by lords, lay or religious, to whom those lands had been given. Thus begins what we have today called feudal system or feudalism, establishing itself as a mode of social organization.
The society was divided into estates: at the base we found the peasants, free or serfs, who assumed the immense majority of the population; in the intermediate ranks are the military and the nobles, lay or ecclesiastical. Not all had the same category but the status within these two groups varied. We end up on the cusp with royalty, that is, the king and his family.