The two Supreme Court cases, Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education, addressed which of these issues? A. freedom of speech under the 1st Amendment B. equal protection under the 14th Amendment C. due process under the 5th Amendment D. probable cause under the 4th Amendment

QUESTION POSTED AT 18/01/2020 - 06:48 AM

Answered by admin AT 18/01/2020 - 06:48 AM

Correct answer:

B. equal protection under the 14th Amendment

Historical background/details:

In the decades after the Civil War, states in the South began to pass laws that sought to keep white and black society separate.  In the 1880s, a number of  state legislatures began to pass laws requiring railroads to provide separate cars for passengers who were black.  At the heart of the case that became Plessy v. Ferguson was an 1890 law passed in Louisiana in 1890 that required railroads to provide "separate railway carriages for the white and colored races.”

In 1892, Homer Plessy, who was 1/8 black, bought a first class train railroad ticket, took a seat in the whites only section, and then informed the conductor that he was part black.  He was removed from the train and jailed.  He argued for his civil rights before Judge John Howard Ferguson and was found guilty.  His case went all the way to the Supreme Court which at that time upheld the idea of "separate but equal" facilities.

Several decades later, the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision was overturned.  Brown v. Board of Education, decided by the US Supreme Court in 1954, extended civil liberties to all Americans in regard to access to education. The "separate but equal" principle of Plessy v. Ferguson had been applied to education as it had been to transportation. In Topeka, Kansas, Oliver Brown filed a lawsuit after the public school district refused to enroll his daughter in the school closest to their home, making her instead take a bus to a blacks-only school.  Other families joined the Brown family lawsuit.  When it went to the level of the Supreme Court, there were other cases from other parts of the country that the Supreme Court combined with it.  The full name of the case at the Supreme Court level was Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, et al.  The arguments were heard before the Supreme Court in 1952 and 1953, and the Brown v. Board of Education decision was issued  in 1954.   The standard of "separate but equal" was challenged and defeated. Segregation was shown to create inequality, and the Supreme Court unanimously ruled segregation to be unconstitutional.

The 14th Amendment was being violated by states whose laws supported the segregation of schools.  Section 1 of the 14th Amendment reads as follows:

  • All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
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Related questions

What are examples of the colonial grievances from the Declaration of Independence being addressed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights?

Some colonial grievances from the declaration of independence being adressed by the constitution and Bill if rights are the privacy law were military or anyone else couldn't just come into your house and stay the freedom of speech the right to trial in front of a jury the right to a lawer.

ANSWERED AT 16/02/2020 - 05:21 AM

QUESTION POSTED AT 16/02/2020 - 05:21 AM

Which document addressed colonial concerns about English policies

The Declaration of Independence.

ANSWERED AT 16/02/2020 - 02:16 AM

QUESTION POSTED AT 16/02/2020 - 02:16 AM

The thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments reflected the growing 19th century American trend of a) granting universal manhood suffrage b) upholding rights of free speech and religion c) decreasing the power of the federal government d) recognizing the basic civil liberties of all races


d) recognizing the basic civil liberties of all races


The thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments, also called the Reconstruction Amendments, were a series of legislation that aimed at recognizing the basic liberties of all race, more specifically of African Americans, who had been harshly discriminated and mistreated for decades. In theory, the amendment progressively recognized them as equal humans beings to White Americans, by prohibiting slavery, declaring that all person born or naturalized in the U.S. were citizen, which included African Americans, and by guaranteeing their right to vote. In practice, however, African American would still have a long way to go to gain fully equality.

ANSWERED AT 16/02/2020 - 02:02 AM

QUESTION POSTED AT 16/02/2020 - 02:02 AM

How could slaves get their freedom

Slaves could get their freedom by running away and trying not to get caught by slave masters. There were also abolitionist who gave important speeches about their opinion on slavery

ANSWERED AT 16/02/2020 - 12:14 AM

QUESTION POSTED AT 16/02/2020 - 12:14 AM

Which amendment protects any rights that are not specifically mentioned within the Constitution or the Bill of Rights?

The Ninth Amendment (Amendment IX) to the United States Constitution addresses rights, retained by the people, that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution. It is part of the Bill of Rights. Hope this answers the question.

ANSWERED AT 16/02/2020 - 12:08 AM

QUESTION POSTED AT 16/02/2020 - 12:08 AM

What best defines the Freeport Doctrine? counsel and jury trials should be provided for runaway slaves B.Abraham Lincoln's position that he would not interfere with the status of slavery but opposed the extension of slavery C.Stephen Douglas' position that slavery could be excluded from a territory if officials did not pass laws to protect it

The best and most correct answer among the choices provided by your question is the third choice or letter C "Stephen Douglas' position that slavery could be excluded from a territory if officials did not pass laws to protect it"

On August 27, 1858, Freeport was the site of the second Lincoln-Douglas debate, during which Stephen A. Douglas formulated the “ Freeport Doctrine,” in which he argued that a territory had the right to exclude slavery despite contrary U.S. Supreme Court decisions.

I hope my answer has come to your help. Thank you for posting your question here in Brainly. We hope to answer more of your questions and inquiries soon. Have a nice day ahead!

ANSWERED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:57 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:57 PM

Select all the items that describe incentives. -depend on the individual -affect how people behave -are not part of the decision process -help to determine the choices of an individual

The correct options are: "-depend on the individual  -affect how people behave  -help to determine the choices of an individual"

An incentive is that which induces a person or agent to act in a certain way, and may be a reward or punishment. Incentives can be classified according to the different ways in which they motivate agents to take a particular course of action.

ANSWERED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:56 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:56 PM

Which amendment resulted in the incorporation of the Bill of Rights?

Fourteen amendments resulted in the incorporation of the Bill of Rights. Whereas incorporation involves the Bill of Rights to the requirements by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, in contrary incorporation, the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment has been carried to appeal to the national sovereignty by the Due Process Clause established in the Fifth Amendment.

Further Explanation

Incorporation, according to the United States regulation, is the principle by which parts of the Bill of Rights have been made relevant to the states. When the Bill of Rights was sanctioned, courts continued that its protections only lengthened to the developments of the national government and that the Bill of Rights did not establish limitations on the permission of state and local departments.  

Nonetheless, the post-Civil War period, originating in 1865 with the Thirteenth Amendment, which announced the emancipation of slavery, gave growth to the embodiment of other Amendments, demanding more benefits to the republics and people over the age. Gradually, various divisions of the Bill of Rights have been confined to implement to state and local legislatures by consolidation through the Fourteenth Amendment and the Fifteenth Amendment.  

Learn more:

1. Why were taxes an ongoing source of conflict for the American colonists?

2. In a parliamentary system of representative democracy, the prime minister is appointed by the monarch. is elected by representatives chosen by the people. is the leader of the party that won the most seats in parliament. is elected directly by the people?  

Answer Details

Grade: High School

Subject: History

Chapter: The Constitution

Keywords :

Civil war , thirteen amendment , fourteen amendment , emancipation , slavery , republic , age , division , bill of rights , legislatures , limitation , permission , departments.

ANSWERED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:40 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:40 PM

The judicial power shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts of appeal, circuit courts, and county courts." The quote above is from the Florida constitution, because it creates four types of courts, whereas the U.S. Constitution only creates the U.S. Supreme Court U.S. Constitution, because it creates all the types of courts that may exist in any state of the nation Florida constitution, because all of these courts are equal in power at the state level U.S. Constitution, because only the national government has judicial power

The correct answer is A) Florida constitution, because it creates four types of courts, whereas the U.S. Constitution only creates the U.S. Supreme Court.

The judicial power shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts of appeal, circuit courts, and county courts." The quote above is from the Florida constitution, because it creates four types of courts, whereas the U.S. Constitution only creates the U.S. Supreme Court.

When consulting the Florida Constitution to know more about the judicial branch, this information can be found in Article V, section 8. Besides the Florida court, in the state of Florida, there are 5 courts of appeals. Furthermore, Florida has 20 circuit courts and 60 county courts. In 1972, the government created the OSCA, the Office of State Courts Administration to oversee the work of the judicial system in the state.

ANSWERED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:35 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:35 PM

What was the main objection that people had to John Quincy Adams's election by the House of Representatives? A. William Crawford won the popular vote, so people felt that the House of Representatives had disregarded the will of the people. B. John Quincy Adams believed in a strong federal government, so many people objected to having him serve as president. C. Andrew Jackson was a military hero who many people wanted the House of Representatives to honor by electing him president. D. John Quincy Adams later appointed Henry Clay as secretary of state, so people felt there had be Who supported Andrew Jackson in the election of 1828? A. The common man B. Native Americans who owned property C. Woman who appreciated his devotion to his Wife Rachel D. Slaves who he had freed Which campaign strategy was used in the election of 1828 and is still used today? A. bumper stickers and yard signs B. stump speeches C. negative campaigning D. debates Which of the following is a position that Andrew Jackson took during his administration? A. Against the Second Bank of the United States B. In favor of the Second Bank of the United States C. Supporter of higher protective tariffs D. Opponent of Indian removal A crisis erupted in the 1830s over nullification. What was nullification? A. The result of a presidential veto that Congress failed to override B. The effect of the Supreme Court declaring laws to be unconstitutional C. The Idea that a state could declare federal legislation invalid, prevent its enforcement , and possibly secede D. The notion that state delegations could change their votes in Congress within the 10 days that the president had to veto legislation


The Election that birthed the modern American politics is the election of 1828. Which is also termed as the "Ugly Election" in the history of American politics.


Now coming to the answer we have:

  1. Ans- option D: Adam was accused of a "Corrupt Bargain".As many believed that he promised Henry Clay a place in the new system before election. And surprisingly Clay was nominated as the secretary of state by the government.
  2. Ans- option A- Andrew Jackson was a war hero and he had a vision to create a modern and civilized system of the state. The common man(white people) supported him not just because he supported individual liberty, but he also made different policies which made it clear for the native Americans to migrate from some regions in the states.
  3. Ans -option C: False Propaganda system first started in the campaign of 1828 elections. Andrew Jackson was accused of dueling and gambling. Along with that John Quincy Adams was accused of "corrupt barging". So there was a new way to campaign but a negative one.  
  4. Ans- option A:  Andre Jackson was not against any federal bank but the Second Bank of the United States, had a government sponsored monopoly, as it lacked the congressional sight over its business. Along with that the bank had unusual economic and political powers.  Andre Jackson in September, 1833 he used his executive and democratic powers to remove all the federal funds from the bank.
  5. option-C: As the issue raised was between the U.S. state of South Carolina and the federal government at that time it was due to the enforcement of tariff rules. As the campaign started by a politician named as John C.Calhoun, who opposed the federal imposition of federal tariff rules and regulation on the states. So, in November 1832 the U.S. state of South Carolina adopted the Ordinance of Nullification (was Constitutionally correct) and declared all the federally imposed tariff laws null and non-binding in the state.

ANSWERED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:34 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:34 PM

Which is the best description of the outcome of the 1961 Vienna Summit? A. Khrushchev and Kennedy agreed to remove missiles from secret locations. B. Fidel Castro announced to Kennedy that Cuba was now a communist state. C. Khrushchev demanded that American troops leave the city of West Berlin. D. Kennedy gave a famous speech in response to the creation of the Berlin Wall.

The correct answer is C. The outcome of the 1961 Vienna Summit was that Khrushchev demanded that American troops leave the city of West Berlin.

The 1961 Vienna Summit took place on 3 and 4 June 1961 between Nikita Khrushchev, head of government of the Soviet Union and John F. Kennedy, president of the United States. The meeting held in neutral Austria in Vienna was designed to reduce tensions between the two superpowers, that were confronting each other during the Cold War.

In this summit, Khrushchev and Kennedy dealt with two important issues regarding the Cold War: the cessation of nuclear weapons tests and the withdrawal of American troops from West Berlin.

Although there were no immediate agreements in this regard, certain accords were made upon and subsequently applied.

ANSWERED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:32 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:32 PM

The highest court in the state of Florida is the Florida Supreme Court U.S. Supreme Court U.S. County Court Florida County Court


The answer is for sure, A.) Florida Supreme Court


I checked the question twice and I'm sure it's correct!

can i have brainliest? :0

ANSWERED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:30 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:30 PM

Once the title for Georgia was secured, the organizers banned all of the following EXCEPT A. to ban slavery. B. freedom of religion. C. to prohibit the importation of rum and brandy. D. to limit individual landholdings to fifty acres.

B. Freedom of religion.

In Georgia freedom of religion is provided by the constitutional laws. The government of Georgia respects religious freedom. When the title of Georgia was secured, the organisers banned everything except freedom of religion.

ANSWERED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:03 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 15/02/2020 - 11:03 PM

At the core, Nazism: A. was strikingly similar to communism B. was socialism with a militaristic focus C. was the opposite of Communism and socialism because they taught all people were equal D. had nothing in common with democracy

The correct answer that would best complete the given statement above would be option A. At the core, Nazism was strikingly similar to communism. The Nazi state used terror and repression to coerce opponents. Hope this is the answer that you are looking for. Thanks for posting your question.

ANSWERED AT 14/02/2020 - 04:15 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 14/02/2020 - 04:15 PM

To address the issue of Nazi genocide during World War II, the Allies __________.

To address the issue of Nazi Genocide during world war II, the allies :
Put Nazi's leaders on Trial
Too bad that the highest leader (Adolf Hitler) killed himself before we got a chance to capture him

hope this helps

ANSWERED AT 14/02/2020 - 12:33 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 14/02/2020 - 12:33 PM

What made Removal policy seem especially harsh and hypocritical? Was chance there any that the Jackson's Indian tribes could have maintained their own lands and identities Cherokees and other civilized southeastern if Jackson had not defied the Supreme Court?

By the 1820's, Georgians had become alarmed over the failure of the United States to fulfill its obligations under the contract of 1802. Not only had a majority of Cherokees failed to remove West, but those who remained had set themselves upon a deliberate program of "civilization" on the white man's terms. Accepting the Jeffersonian ideal of the individual farmer, the Cherokees established successful farms, multiplied their livestock, began educating their children in missionary schools, and eventually, in 1827, developed a full-scale republican political organization with institutions patterned directly upon those of the United States. They adopted a written Constitution, and were soon to develop their own written language and alphabet and establish their own press. Every step toward "civilization" intensified their interest in retaining their homeland. News from the Cherokees in the West was discouraging about prospects there. Suspicions about treaties were heightened by some irregularities in the lines drawn in the most recent treaty of 1817, which ceded away Cherokee lands in proportion to those who emigrated west.


Cherokee "progress" was interpreted, unsympathetically, by land-hungry Georgians as "permanence." In the 1820's they began to put increasing pressure on the federal government to live up to its commitment under the 1802 compact. Presidents Monroe and John Quincy Adams were sympathetic to the basic idea of removal of all Indian tribes including the Cherokees, to the West, but their negotiations with the Cherokees failed to achieve major change and left Georgians intensely dissatisfied. In 1828, Andrew Jackson made Indian removal one of his major campaign issues, gaining heavy support in the south and West, not the least of which came from Georgia. With his inauguration in 1829, the process of Indian removal, particularly as it affected the Cherokees, entered a new stage.

ANSWERED AT 13/02/2020 - 05:29 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 13/02/2020 - 05:29 PM

How did Magna Carta protect the following rights that are found in the U.S. Constitution?

The Magna Carta was used to limit the rights of the higher-ups.

For example: The king can't just take a farmer's land, they need permission from the farmer before the king takes the crops and land.

ANSWERED AT 13/02/2020 - 12:10 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 13/02/2020 - 12:10 PM

Which organization protected the rights of working women?

The NAWSA (National American Women Suffrage Association) protected the rights to vote for women in America. The law that protected them was the womens rights law and the amendment was the 19th admendment.

ANSWERED AT 11/02/2020 - 12:15 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 11/02/2020 - 12:15 PM

Write a speech from the perspective of an merchant, urging colonists to support your idea of free trade with countries other than britain.

My compatriots,

although it might seem to all of you that such a proposition is meant to benefit myself and other merchants only, I beg you to pay attention to the words that I bring you, since they might be very good to all of you.

Yes, I want better deals for myself as well and I want things to be better for myself. What you might not understand is how trading with other countries is better for all of us, not only myself.

Having what to sell for a better price makes me richer, but if all of us have access to the same cargo, not only are we free to trade without abusive taxation, but the competition would only allow those who can sell for the lowest price to make some money out of such endeavor, and lower prices are good for the buyer.

Selling to Britain or buying from them and only them gets us stuck in a situation where they can dictate our destinies at any moment. Producing too much and having no one to sell to if Britain refuses our merchandise will make us produce even less, rising the cost of what is done, since we can't risk losing all our work and production.

I urge you to consider that as a country of producers, we all wish to sell and buy for better costs and we all wish to be rewarded for our work instead of being adrift under Britain's influence. Let us open the market. Let us buy from the world and sell to the world.

ANSWERED AT 11/02/2020 - 09:58 AM

QUESTION POSTED AT 11/02/2020 - 09:58 AM

How might the content of the Declaration of Independence lead to questions over the issue of slavery?

In the Declaration of Independence all men are created equal, our founding fathers, meant that, President Lincoln himself stated that many times, but ironically and sadly it was all colored people in this country that suffered because some of our founding fathers would not free their slaves and that later lead to our American Civil War.

ANSWERED AT 10/02/2020 - 05:50 PM

QUESTION POSTED AT 10/02/2020 - 05:50 PM